were helots slaves

Lévy, p. 12, with a warning that this evidence should not be worked too hard.

The first helot attempt at revolt which is historically reported is that provoked by general Pausanias in the 5th century BC. Talbert, R.J.A. Moses Finley underscores that the fact helots could serve as hoplites constituted a grave flaw in the system. [27] Classical historiography recognizes that the helots comprised a large portion of these mothakes. [12] According to some authors, in the fourth century BC, citizens also used chattel-slaves for domestic purposes. "[15] Pausanias is describing the period immediately after the first Messenian War, when conditions were probably more severe.

"[26], Thus Paul Cartledge claims that "the history of Sparta (…) is fundamentally the history of the class struggle between the Spartans and the Helots".[48]. The uprising coincident with the earthquake of 464 BC is soundly attested to, although Greek historians do not agree on the interpretation of this event. It has been assumed that when the Dorians conquered Laconia (the southeast of the Peloponnese), they reduced the native population to the status of helots. Slavery was an accepted practice in ancient Greece, as in other societies of the time.Some Ancient Greek writers (including, most notably, Aristotle) described slavery as natural and even necessary.This paradigm was notably questioned in Socratic dialogues; the Stoics produced the first recorded condemnation of slavery.. Trans.

[55] This version of events is supported by Plutarch.[56].

So all i've heard about this is that the Spartans were a sort of small elite that ruled over the helots who vastly outnumbered them. Additionally, the Helots were not privately owned, but belonged to the state. Plutarch has Timaia, the wife of King Agis II, "being herself forward enough to whisper among her helot maid-servants" that the child she was expecting had been fathered by Alcibiades, and not her husband, indicating a certain level of trust. [32] It has also been stressed that contempt alone could hardly explain the organized murder of Helots mentioned by several ancient sources.

[39] Myron's evidence is interpreted as an extrapolation from actions performed on symbolic representatives. Finally, helots, like slaves, could be artisans or tradesmen. Other acts of violence and terror are recorded, and it seems that Spartan society as a whole suffered from a permanent fear of a helot rebellion. The Helots, by contrast, had their own families and communities.

The total population of helots at that time, including women, is estimated as 170,000 – 224,000. Phylarchus mentions a class of men that were at the same time free and non-citizens: the Template:Polytonic / mothakes, who had undergone the 'agoge, the Spartan educational system. They had to be permanently on their guard, and it is not surprising, therefore, that their magistrates (the ephors) declared war upon the Messenians every year. If there is any doubt in these affirmations, they at least underscore the immediate Spartan reaction: allies are gathered and war ensues with the same Athens that would be faced later in the Peloponnesian War. Writing much later, Xenophon stated that helots would gladly eat their masters raw, and several revolts of Messenian helots have been recorded. zh:黑劳士, Pollux 3, 83.

Unsuccessful Spartan soldiers were forced to become slaves.

The text suggests that this is normally associated with completion of military service. The helots were serfs owned by the Spartan state, basically slaves; the Roman historian Livy claims that they were "a race of rustics, who have been feudal vassals even from the earliest times." It is certain that one aspect of helotism was the element of conquest; thus Messenians, who were conquered in the Messenian Wars of the 8th century BC, become synonymous in Herodotus with helots. Were the Helots (Slaves) ethnically the same as the Spartans? I will explain. They were forced to work on the land and had to give the fruits to the Spartans.
Helots were assigned to citizens to carry out domestic work or to work on their klēroi. The few citations which have been associated with helot revolt are discussed below. fr:Hilotes Modern historiography favours the hypothesis of Antiochus of Syracuse.

The situation is less clear in the case of the earliest helots, who, according to Theopompus, were descended from the initial Achaeans, who had been conquered by the Dorians. Spartan criminals were sentenced to slavery. In fact, some ancient authors did not consider the term ethnic, but rather an indication of servitude: Antiochus of Syracuse writes: "those of the Lacedaemonians who did not take part in the expedition were adjudged slaves and were named helots",[9] while Theopompus (fragment 122), cited by Athenaeus (VI, 416c), states, "...and the one nation called their slaves helots and the others called them penestae...." [10]. Therefore, Pausanias calls them "slaves of the commonwealth".

[28] Aristotle compares them to "an enemy constantly sitting in wait of the disaster of the Spartans". sr:Хелот

[16], Having paid their tribute, the helots could often live rather well; the lands of Laconia and Messenia were very fertile, and often permitted two crops per year. nl:Heloten The classical authors used a number of terms which appear to evoke similar concepts: The situation is somewhat complicated by a gloss of Hesychios of Alexandria which attests that mothakes were slave children (Template:Polytonic / doũloi) raised at the same time as the children of citizens.

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